Learn STEM topics and fractions while engaged in reading about the advancements being made with 3-D printing! This grade 4 math reader describes how 3-D printing technology is being used and developed by doctors to help patients. It uses real-world examples to teach math skills like adding and subtracting fractions. The challenging practice problems, graphs, and sidebars provide many opportunities for students to practice their developing math skills, and apply what they’ve learned to their daily lives. Text features include captions, a glossary, an index, and a table of contents to increase students’ vocabulary and literacy skills and their interaction with the text. Math Talk poses problems for further thinking, requiring students to use their higher-order thinking skills.
This report examines additive manufacturing (AM) and describes its potential impact on the Navy’s Supply Chain Management processes. Included in the analysis is the implementation of 3D printing technology and how it could impact the Navy’s future procurement processes, specifically based on a conducted analysis of the automotive aerospace industry. Industry research and development has identified multiple dimensions of AM technology, including material variety, cost saving advantages, and lead-time minimizations for manufacturing products. This project is designed to provide the Navy with a recommendation based on an in-depth industry case-study analysis. CHAPTER I * INTRODUCTION * A. OVERVIEW * B. REPORT ORGANIZATION * CHAPTER II * LITERATURE REVIEW * A. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING HISTORY * B. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OVERVIEW * C. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND METHODS * 1. Binder Jetting * 2. Directed Energy Deposition * 3. Material Extrusion * 4. Material Jetting * 5. Powder Bed Fusion * 6. Sheet Lamination * 7. Vat Photopolymerization * D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING USES AND BENEFITS * E. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CHALLENGES, ISSUES, AND CONCERNS * F. NAVY PROCUREMENT PROCESS * G. SUMMARY * CHAPTER III * METHODOLOGY * A. MULTIPLE CASE-STUDY ANALYSIS * B. IMPLEMENTATION * C. SUMMARY * CHAPTER IV * CASE ANALYSIS * A. BIG INDUSTRY: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING IN AVIATION AND AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING * 1. Automotive Industry * a. General Motors Financial Troubles * b. Costs * c. Additive Manufacturing in Tooling Process * d. Application in Production of Parts * 2. Aerospace Industry * 3. Boeing Aviation Corporation * 4. Additive Manufacturing Developments * B. CONCLUSIONS * CHAPTER V * IMPLEMENTATION * A. INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS * B. MILITARY APPLICATIONS * C. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS AND CRITERIA * D. MILITARY ISSUES WITH AM * 1. Parts Testing and Certification * 2. Information Security * 3. Intellectual Property Infringement * 4. Personnel Training and Skill Set Development * E. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES DEPLOYED * CHAPTER VI * CONCLUSION * A. SUMMARY
The binary number system is what runs almost all modern digital electronics and is used in several schools of higher mathematics. If you are unfamiliar with binary mathematics, it is a simplified version of decimal math that requires the use of only two numbers, a 1 and a 0. Because it is such a straightforward system it is ideal for almost all modern computers and computation devices. While the modern binary number system was developed way back in 1679, it was based on concepts that date all the way back to ancient Egypt and the I Ching number system from 9th century BC China.
This 3D Printed Binary Adding Machine was designed and printed by Thingiverse user and 3D printing hobbyist Don Schaefer and based on a wooden design developed by a maker named Matthias Wandel. The original wooden machine was based around a simple concept of what Wandel calls a “flipflop” piece that can represent either a 1 or a 0 depending on its positioning. When a marble falls on the right of the flipflop it will stay in place until a second marble falls to the left of the flipflop. A single dropped marble will start a cascading effect that represents how computers use binary numbers to function.
Schaefer decided to design a 3D printable version of the device for educational purposes, with the idea that teachers or students could easily print out their own machine. 3D printing is much easier than wood working, and would allow them to teach the basics of binary counting. He originally used the plans for a wooden version that Wandel posted on his website; however, they were not easily translatable to something that could be 3D printed.
“This quickly became a 3D printing nightmare. I needed to come up with something that maintained basic functionality that was also 3D printer friendly. I knew early on that the goal was 1/2 scale of the wooden version. This meant replacing a marble with a 5/16 steel ball. The steel ball is the only non printable part of this project,” explained Schaefer.
The machine was designed entirely in Solidworks and will need to be 3D printed in almost twenty individual parts. Just the two largest sections of the device alone required about six hours of 3D printing each, with the smaller parts needing several more hours. However, Schaefer included a Simplify3D file for the base assembly that has custom supports that will trim close to an hour off of the job. It will also help prevent the supports from getting on the return ramp, making cleaning and post processing faster.
The design initially included built-in pins on the upper assembly that were intended to hold the flipflop parts in place. Unfortunately, Schaefer discovered that they were far too fragile and easily broke off. He redesigned the assembly and removed the pins, replacing them with a pin that prints separately that can be pushed in from the back. Thankfully the new pin is much more durable and holds up to the constant motion of the flipflops quite well.
Here is a brief demonstration video of Schaefer’s 3D printed version of the device:
And here is a video demonstration of the original wooden Wandel design:
As each flipflop moves back and forth they demonstrate binary bits and bytes in physical form, with the steel balls registering the sum of all the values that are being added together. While his first version glitched slightly the first time that it added up to 32, the machine worked perfectly with each subsequent use. Schaefer is still developing his 3D Printed Binary Adding Machine and intends on having his second version of the device ready by the end of September.
You can download the digital files for your own machine over on Thingiverse, and learn more about all of Matthias Wandel’s cool woodworking projects and marble machines on his website. And let us know what you think of this 3D printing project over on our 3D Printed Binary Adding Machine forum thread at 3DPB.com.
Here are some suggestions for how to incorporate threads into SLA/DLP 3D printed parts for metal fasteners from FormLabs:
…There are many ways to attach multiple 3D printed parts together, but if you need to repeatedly attach and detach components and want robust mechanical fastening, there’s no real replacement for genuine metal threads. All the same, we’ve come up with a few good ways to incorporate threads into your 3D-printed parts.
Here are some of the various design options (from most effective to least effective):
1. Print pocket for metal threads (i.e. add a nut).
Adding a hexagonal pocket to the backside of a face to pressfit a nut creates reusable, robust metal-on-metal contact. For extra twist-out strength you can choose a square nut. This nut can also be plastic or include locking features. If needed, a drop of CA glue will hold it in place, but modeling in a pocket from the side is even better as it eliminates the need for glue altogether. Use a 0.1 mm offset around the nut for a press fit and use a clearance hole around the screw itself.
2. Print threads and chase with a tap.
After printing the threads, leaving the part to post-cure in the sun for a day or two makes the part harder and easier to cut threads. These threads will still be relatively delicate depending on the size and are not the best choice for a permanent reusable fastening system. If you don’t have a tap (perhaps that’s why you’re printing the threads), you can just use a screw or nut to clean up the threads.
3. Use thread-cutting screws designed for plastics.
Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines for boss dimensions. This option is best-suited to prototype parts which will eventually be injection molded for these screws. The screws hold firmly but there is a risk of cracking the boss and the threads won’t hold up to repeated use the way metal threads will.
AVOID using press-fit or heat set threaded inserts! Even if they are designed for “plastic,” they do not work well in our acrylate photopolymer resins….
Every Thursday is #3dthursday here at Adafruit! The DIY 3D printing community has passion and dedication for making solid objects from digital models. Recently, we have noticed electronics projects integrated with 3D printed enclosures, brackets, and sculptures, so each Thursday we celebrate and highlight these bold pioneers!
Have you considered building a 3D project around an Arduino or other microcontroller? How about printing a bracket to mount your Raspberry Pi to the back of your HD monitor? And don’t forget the countless LED projects that are possible when you are modeling your projects in 3D!
The Adafruit Learning System has dozens of great tools to get you well on your way to creating incredible works of engineering, interactive art, and design with your 3D printer! We also offer the LulzBot TAZ – Open source 3D Printer and the Printrbot Simple Metal 3D Printer in our store. If you’ve made a cool project that combines 3D printing and electronics, be sure to let us know, and we’ll feature it here!
Have an amazing project to share? Join the SHOW-AND-TELL every Wednesday night at 7:30pm ET on Google+ Hangouts.
Join us every Wednesday night at 8pm ET for Ask an Engineer!
Learn resistor values with Mho’s Resistance or get the best electronics calculator for engineers “Circuit Playground” – Adafruit’s Apps!
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