This report examines additive manufacturing (AM) and describes its potential impact on the Navy’s Supply Chain Management processes. Included in the analysis is the implementation of 3D printing technology and how it could impact the Navy’s future procurement processes, specifically based on a conducted analysis of the automotive aerospace industry. Industry research and development has identified multiple dimensions of AM technology, including material variety, cost saving advantages, and lead-time minimizations for manufacturing products. This project is designed to provide the Navy with a recommendation based on an in-depth industry case-study analysis. CHAPTER I * INTRODUCTION * A. OVERVIEW * B. REPORT ORGANIZATION * CHAPTER II * LITERATURE REVIEW * A. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING HISTORY * B. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OVERVIEW * C. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND METHODS * 1. Binder Jetting * 2. Directed Energy Deposition * 3. Material Extrusion * 4. Material Jetting * 5. Powder Bed Fusion * 6. Sheet Lamination * 7. Vat Photopolymerization * D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING USES AND BENEFITS * E. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CHALLENGES, ISSUES, AND CONCERNS * F. NAVY PROCUREMENT PROCESS * G. SUMMARY * CHAPTER III * METHODOLOGY * A. MULTIPLE CASE-STUDY ANALYSIS * B. IMPLEMENTATION * C. SUMMARY * CHAPTER IV * CASE ANALYSIS * A. BIG INDUSTRY: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING IN AVIATION AND AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING * 1. Automotive Industry * a. General Motors Financial Troubles * b. Costs * c. Additive Manufacturing in Tooling Process * d. Application in Production of Parts * 2. Aerospace Industry * 3. Boeing Aviation Corporation * 4. Additive Manufacturing Developments * B. CONCLUSIONS * CHAPTER V * IMPLEMENTATION * A. INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS * B. MILITARY APPLICATIONS * C. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS AND CRITERIA * D. MILITARY ISSUES WITH AM * 1. Parts Testing and Certification * 2. Information Security * 3. Intellectual Property Infringement * 4. Personnel Training and Skill Set Development * E. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES DEPLOYED * CHAPTER VI * CONCLUSION * A. SUMMARY
In a recent announcement voxeljet has debuted a newly developed Phenolic-Direct-Binding method. This new binding method not only offers key advantages for sand printing but also allows for the production of ceramic molds.
The new binder offers a number of advantages for many 3D printing applications, as process engineer Dr. Florian Mögele can attest: “With this binder, we are able to achieve an incredible level of resolution and precision in 3D printing. At the same time, we have also made significant improvements in terms of stability and sand recycling. And: phenolic resin binders are ideally suited for processing ceramic and other materials.”
3D printed, complicated PDB sand molds surpass even the highest expectations. The Phenolic-Direct-Binding method, with its impressive accuracy and increased strength, is setting new trends, especially for complex molds with undercuts, elaborate details and very small radii.
The phenolic resin that is used is not toxic and allows for 100% recycling of non-printed particle material. In contrast to conventional binders, the PDB process does not require silica sand to be pre-treated, which means that it can be easily returned to the sand cycle.
voxeljet expects to offer the new material-set for various printer platforms by the middle of 2015. Until that time, the company will be working on implementing and optimizing the process for relevant printer platforms. Of course, interested parties can also obtain advance information about the performance of the new binder method on the basis of standardized benchmark parts.