This report examines additive manufacturing (AM) and describes its potential impact on the Navy’s Supply Chain Management processes. Included in the analysis is the implementation of 3D printing technology and how it could impact the Navy’s future procurement processes, specifically based on a conducted analysis of the automotive aerospace industry. Industry research and development has identified multiple dimensions of AM technology, including material variety, cost saving advantages, and lead-time minimizations for manufacturing products. This project is designed to provide the Navy with a recommendation based on an in-depth industry case-study analysis. CHAPTER I * INTRODUCTION * A. OVERVIEW * B. REPORT ORGANIZATION * CHAPTER II * LITERATURE REVIEW * A. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING HISTORY * B. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OVERVIEW * C. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND METHODS * 1. Binder Jetting * 2. Directed Energy Deposition * 3. Material Extrusion * 4. Material Jetting * 5. Powder Bed Fusion * 6. Sheet Lamination * 7. Vat Photopolymerization * D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING USES AND BENEFITS * E. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CHALLENGES, ISSUES, AND CONCERNS * F. NAVY PROCUREMENT PROCESS * G. SUMMARY * CHAPTER III * METHODOLOGY * A. MULTIPLE CASE-STUDY ANALYSIS * B. IMPLEMENTATION * C. SUMMARY * CHAPTER IV * CASE ANALYSIS * A. BIG INDUSTRY: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING IN AVIATION AND AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING * 1. Automotive Industry * a. General Motors Financial Troubles * b. Costs * c. Additive Manufacturing in Tooling Process * d. Application in Production of Parts * 2. Aerospace Industry * 3. Boeing Aviation Corporation * 4. Additive Manufacturing Developments * B. CONCLUSIONS * CHAPTER V * IMPLEMENTATION * A. INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS * B. MILITARY APPLICATIONS * C. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS AND CRITERIA * D. MILITARY ISSUES WITH AM * 1. Parts Testing and Certification * 2. Information Security * 3. Intellectual Property Infringement * 4. Personnel Training and Skill Set Development * E. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES DEPLOYED * CHAPTER VI * CONCLUSION * A. SUMMARY
Jul 12, 2016 | By Tess
So far, the 2016 Farnborough International Airshow is shaping up to be an exciting exhibition for additive manufacturing technologies. With Airbus’ Andy Anderson announcing that the company foresees the testing of 3D printed satellites in the near future, with SAP and APWorks announcing a co-innovation agreement for the adoption of on-demand industrial 3D printing, and with Norsk Titanium announcing additional funding for its industrial 3D printing facility in Plattsburgh, NY, the past few days at the Airshow have been quite exciting.
Now, it seems Canada will get a piece of the 3D printing pie, as additive manufacturing equipment company Arcam AB has just announced that its powder manufacturing subsidiary Advanced Powders & Coatings (AP&C) will be investing in a second factory in the Greater Montreal area. The announcement was made at the Farnborough International Airshow in Hampshire, England.
Quebec based AP&C, which was acquired by its Swedish parent company Arcam AB in 2014 for $35 million, will reportedly be investing $31 million in the new facility which will be dedicated to making advanced metal powders used for additive manufacturing within the aerospace and biomedical industries. The financing for the new facility, which will be located in Boisbriand just outside of Montreal, was arranged in collaboration with Montréal International and Investissement Québec (IQ) who are offering the project up to $10 million in interest free loans and $1.5 million in grants.
Magnus René, CEO of Arcam, says of the investment, “The support from Investissement Québec and Montreal International is important for our ability to expand quickly to address the increased demand for high end titanium powder. Arcam is determined to serve the fast growing Additive Manufacturing industry through cost efficient solutions thus converting traditional manufacturing into Additive Manufacturing. A requisite is to offer highest quality metal powder for production at competitive cost.”
Currently, AP&C employs nearly 85 workers at its existing Boisbriand factory and is expected to hire about 106 more over the next three years for its new, more automated facility, effectively increasing its Quebec workforce by more than double. Additionally, AP&C’s second facility will allow the company, Arcam’s main supplier of titanium powders, to expand its production to meet growing demands, especially within the aerospace industry.
“Montréal International, Greater Montréal’s economic development agency, provided strategic support that has been key in making our expansion project possible,” explains Alain Dupont, President of AP&C. “With this investment we can provide our existing and future clients with superior quality materials to meet the high manufacturing standards of the aerospace and biomedical industries. The new powder production facility and advances in atomization facility and advances in atomization technology will significantly increase our production capacity in 2017 and beyond.”
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A new ASTM International working standard may be on the books soon. The proposed standard,”Practice for Metal Powder Bed Fusion to Meet Rigid Quality Requirements” (WK46188) will outline the protocol for the operation and production of powder bed fusion machines used in additive manufacturing and 3-D printing.
The working instruction will contain requirements for parts made with powder bed fusion methods that use laser and electron beam sources. “Powder bed fusion” generally refers to manufacturing processes that use a laser to fuse or melt metal powders in a bed. Electron beam melting, selective laser sintering, selective laser melting and direct metal laser sintering can all be used to create products using “powder bed fusion.”
This directive will likely be used by suppliers setting up shop to create parts using powder bed fusion processes and manufacturers who will use the guidelines to create their own in-house guidelines.
The guideline will increase the safety and quality of parts created via powder bed fusion according to Shane Collins, ASTM member and director, program management, Incodema3d LLC. “Additive manufacturing is based on the capabilities of the machines used in the process,” said Collins. “The machines have been historically designed for the rapid prototyping industry, and we are taking those same machines and now asking them to make safety critical components. WK46188 will illustrate what the critical parameters for successful powder bed fusion are, how to determine the upper and lower limits of the process and ensure all components are exactly the same.”
ASTM F3091 or “Specification for Powder Bed Fusion of Plastic Materials” is a written standard for powder bed fusion of plastic materials. It specifies end-use properties such as mechanical, tolerance, surface finishing and post-processing for polyamide parts produced using SLS. ASTM F3049 or “Guide for Characterizing Properties of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing Processes,” will benefit those who use and make metal powders in the automotive, aerospace and medical fields.
It is without a doubt that a solid set of standards will need to be in place as the technology around additive manufacturing continues to rapidly develop. ASTM has also recently signed a MOU with America Makes outlining a framework for cooperation between the two, in hopes of creating a set of standards within the industry. Let’s hear your thoughts on this story in the additive manufacturing standards forum thread on 3DPB.com.
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